After a routine mammogram, the then 59-year-old underwent a lumpectomy, followed by radiation therapy. While DCIS is not life threatening, when left untreated, in some cases it can become invasive. According to the American Cancer Society, 1 in 5 cases of breast cancer diagnosed are DCIS. Risk factors include:
long term use of hormone replacement therapy
- previous radiation therapy to the chest area
Other risk factors include being a carrier of the BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 gene, having a family history of breast cancer, and also early onset of menstruation (before age 12) and/or late menopause (after 55).
Ann Romney's Diagnosis with DCISRomney's diagnosis came following a routine mammogram. It was not clear whether she experienced any symptoms at the time of her screening. It is common for women to not have any symptoms with DCIS. This makes having a regular mammogram essential for diagnosing breast cancer, especially early cases of the disease, as in Romney's case. The National Cancer Institute reports that 80 percent of women with DCIS are diagnosed through routine mammograms.
Ann Romney's DCIS TreatmentRomney underwent a lumpectomy, a procedure that removes only part of the breast. The goal of the procedure is to remove the abnormal breast while conserving as much healthy breast tissue as possible. Most women who have lumpectomies do not need any type of breast reconstruction surgery.
Women with a greater extent of DCIS may require a mastectomy, the surgical removal of the entire breast. Many women with DCIS only require a lumpectomy, however. Many factors are considered when evaluating the need for a lobectomy and mastectomy. Lumpectomy Versus Mastectomy: 10 Questions to Help You Decide
Romney also had radiation therapy after her lumpectomy, which is a standard for most women who have a lumpectomy to treat DCIS. Radiation therapy reduces the risk of a recurrence.
A side effect of having breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy is lymphedema, a condition marked the excess accumulation of lymph fluid in the tissues. In women undergoing breast cancer treatment, the result is temporary or chronic swelling in the arms, breast and chest.
Life After DCISRomney has remained relatively private about her diagnosis and treatment with DCIS. She has said that horseback riding helped her to cope with her health problems, which also include having multiple sclerosis.
After treatment, some women must have more frequent mammograms, even if they had a mastectomy. Regular screenings help to diagnose a recurrence earlier. The typical interval is every six months after a lumpectomy, at least for a few years.